Leap Months – The deepest secret of Judaism

Judaism –> Leap Months

The deepest secret of Judaism is the “sod ha’ibbur,” literally “the secret of the intercalation.”

“Intercalation” is a word that refers to the reconciliation of the solar and the lunar calendars. The need for such reconciliation is unique to Judaism.

More Articles by Rabbi Hillel Goldberg: What Did Abraham Hear? The solar calendar periodically needs a “leap day,” as it did this year, on Feb. 29. Seven times every nineteen years, the Jewish calendar needs a “leap month,” as it does this year (2000/5760). The leap month of the Hebrew calendar is always the month of Adar. Just scratching the surface of how all this is determined, one is amazed. The “sod ha’ibbur,” the secret of intercalation, leaves one speechless. Adar occurs twice this year, “Adar 1” and “Adar 2.” The periodic need to add a month to the Hebrew calendar is based on Deuteronomy 16:1, which requires that the festival of Passover always occur in the spring. Left to its own devices, a calendar based solely on the lunar cycle would move Passover away from spring. The Moslem calendar is strictly lunar; its holy month of Ramadan moves steadily backwards, eventually circling all the way around the solar calendar. In 1999, for example, Ramadan began on Dec. 9; in 2000, Ramadan begins on Nov. 27. Judaism needs an exception to its lunar cycle in order to ensure that Passover, each and every year, remains in the spring. The solution is to add a “leap month.” Every so often, as the lunar cycle pushes the month in which Passover falls, Nisan, back toward winter, an extra month is added. This pushes Passover forward again toward spring.

Spring, of course, is a season on the solar calendar. Therefore, the addition of a leap month is a reconciliation of the lunar and solar calendars. This is “intercalation.”

To move from intercalation in principle to intercalation in practice is very complicated. How often does one add a leap month? How many days should each one be? For that matter, how is it possible to standardize any month in the lunar cycle? This question stems from the fact that no lunar month corresponds to a solar month. Solar months are 30 or 31 days (and in one case, February, 28 or 29 days). A lunar month, however, is roughly 29.5 solar days. An odd number. This means that the lunar calendar requires more than a simple addition of one extra leap month every so often. The calculation must be more sophisticated. Any day added to the solar calendar is, by definition, in “whole solar days,” but the lunar time that the addition compensates for is not in whole solar days. To figure out exactly how often a leap month needs to be added to the lunar calendar, and exactly how many solar days it needs to be, a prerequisite is an accurate calculation of the lunar month. Here is where Judaism’s deepest secret begins to emerge. According to calculations derived from satellites orbiting the earth, the lunar month is exactly 29.530588 days long. When the Jewish calendar originated in antiquity, there were no satellites. Think, for a moment, what else there were none of—no computers (not even slide rules), no telescopes, no watches. Picture yourself looking up at the sky, lacking even the crudest instrument of measurement, and then figuring out the length of the lunar month. Before satellites, before telescopes, before virtually anything but the naked eye, the Jewish sages of antiquity calculated the lunar month at 29.53059 solar days. 29.53059 days = Sages’ measure 29.530588 = satellite measure The difference is 00.00002 = two one-millionths of a day. Other ancients also calculated the length of the lunar month, and also came close to the satellite measure, but not nearly so close as the ancient sages of Judaism. How did they know this? This is Level 1 of the “sod ha’ibbur,” of the “secret of intercalation.” Level 2 of the deep secret is the age-old philosphic issue of Divine omniscience and human freedom. If G-d knows everything, He knows in advance what any human being might “choose.” G-d’s advance knowledge is determinative. In other words, a person has no freedom of choice. But both G-d’s determinative omniscience and the human being’s freedom of choice are necessary. The sun represents steadiness, easy measurability, determinism. The Book of Ecclesiastes says of the sun, “there is nothing new under the sun” (1:9). The Book of Psalms says of the sun, “the sun knows [the regular timing] of its appearance” (100:14)—the sun is as it always was and always will be. Determinism. The moon’s appearance is not regular. It represents unpredictability, difficult measurability, freedom. The unit of the sun is the “year,” which in Hebrew also connotes “repetition”—determinism. The unit of the moon is the “month,” which in Hebrew also connotes “newness”—freedom. The deepest secret, the “sod ha’ibbur,” is the combination of determinism and freedom. The reconciliation of the solar and the lunar calendars. Divine guidance (“determinism”) together with human responsibility (“freedom”). Rabbi Aaron Lopiansky observes that humanity tends to the one asix or the other, to determinism or to freedom. Either: G-d is in control, human freedom is an illusion, life is a tragedy, moral effort is a waste (or, per Camus, meaningless): determinism. Or: Man is in control, Divine guidance is an illustion, life glorifies the successful, moral effort is a measure of preference: freedom. The Jewish perspective is not either/or—determinism or freedom—but both/and. The Jewish perspective is the “sod ha’ibbur,” the interrelationship of sun and moon. The “secret of intercalation” is the combination of G-d’s determinative and guiding hand and of man’s freedom of choice and responsibility. The Jewish people’s embrace of both is Level 2 of the deepest secret of Judaism. Sabbath literally rolls around every seventh day. The human has no role in its schedule. Sabbath represents G-d’s absolute guidance. Moed, or Jewish festival, is a consequence in antiquity of the human sighting of the “New Moon,” the first sliver of the renascent moon in the sky. Later, when the “secret of intercalation” was in danger of being lost, Hillel, a fourth-century sage, fixed the Jewish calendar for all time. The schedule of Jewish festivals is now based on that calendar (itself based on Level 1 of the secret of intercalation). In principle, however, the Jewish festivals stem from the human sighting of the moon each month. Moed, or Jewish festival, represents the human role in human freedom. Sabbath and festival together represent the interrelationship of the determinsim of G-d and the freedom of man. Sod ha’ibbur—the deepest secret of Judaism.

Rabbi Hillel Goldberg, Ph.D.([email protected]), is executive director of the Intermountain Jewish News ( Reprinted with permission of the Intermountain Jewish News


Jewish People – Basic Judaism

Judaism –> Jewish People

Jew is a term used to denote both followers of a religion and members of an ethnicity (adj. Jewish).

In a religious sense, the term refers to followers of Judaism. In an ethnic sense, it refers to the people, or “nation”, that traces its ancestry from the Biblical patriarch Abraham through his son Isaac and in particular Jacob, Isaac’s son, as well as to those who subsequently joined them over the course of history as “converts”. Ethnic Jews include both “Observant Jews”, meaning those who practice the Biblical and Rabbinic laws, known as the mitzvot, and those who, while not practicing Judaism as a religion, still identify themselves as Jews in a cultural or ethnic sense.

also see:

  • Jew
  • Judaism is a complex combination of a religion and a non-exclusive ethnic group. It has a way to allow others to join through a formal process of “conversion”. The religious belief is detailed in Judaism; this article discusses the ethnic group.
  • Jewish Music


There are competing views as to the origin of the name “Jew”. The most common view, among English speakers, is that the Middle English word “Jew” is from the Old French qiu, earlier juieu, from the Latin iudeus from the Greek corresponding to the Hebrew y’hudi, ultimately from Judah, a member of the Twelve Tribes of the Children of Israel i.e. Jacob ‘s sons. Judah was the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob according to Genesis, and the tribe descended from him. The Old English equivalent was Iudeas. Jews themselves have scholarly traditions that link the name “Jew” starting with Genesis chapter 29 verse 35 where it says that Judah’s mother, the matriarch Leah, named him Judah because she wanted to praise God for giving birth to so many sons: “She said, ‘This time let me praise (odeh) God,’ and named the child Judah (Yehudah).” In the Biblical narrative, Judah was vouch-safed the Jewish monarchy, as the Israelite kings David and Solomon derived their lineage from Judah, and so thus eventually his descendants and subjects were known by his name as well. In Hebrew , the name “Judah” contains the four-letter Tetragrammaton , the special holy ineffable name of God according to Judaism attesting to its importance as an alternate name for “Israelites” .

An alternative and much less common view is that “Jew” is from “Jewry” from the greek evrei meaning “Hebrew”, which some speculate comes from the ancient Egyptian ‘hiberu,’ which meant “stranger”. Under the latter view, Abraham, Israel and other patriarchs are regarded as Jews while under the former only the descendants (ethnically or physically) of the Judaeans would be Jews, strictly speaking.

In one place in the Talmud, the word Israelite refers to somebody who is Jewish but does not necessarily practice Judaism as a religion: “An Israelite even though he has sinned is still an Israelite.” In this usage, the distinction is not made between “Jew” and “Israelite” and they are both called Jew. In modern English, this terminology is not used; one can refer to “religious Jews” or “secular Jews.”

Who is a Jew?

Halakha, Jewish law, defines a Jew as someone who is either the child of a Jewish mother, or a person who converts to Judaism in accord with Jewish law.

This standard is mandated by the Talmud, the record of Oral Law that explicates the Torah, the text on which Jewish law is based. According to the Talmud, this standard has been followed since the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai some 3500 years ago. Non-Orthodox Jewish historians claim that this standard has been followed only for the last 2,000 years.

Mere belief in the principles of Judaism does not make one a Jew. Similarly, non-adherence by one who is Jewish to Jewish principles of faith does not make one lose one’s Jewish status. However, the Israeli legal definition of a Jew excludes those who have joined other religions. In the last half of the 20th century, two theologically liberal (primarily American) Jewish groups Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism have allowed people who do not meet these criteria to define themselves as Jews. They no longer require converts to follow traditional Jewish procedures of conversion, and they accept a person as a Jew even if their mother is non-Jewish, so long as the father is a Jew. This has thus resulted in a serious schism among the Jewish people; today many Reform Jewish and secular Jewish-Americans consider themselves Jews, although they are not considered Jewish by Orthodox Jews, Conservative Jews, and even by many Reform Jews outside of the United States. Some Reform Jews view Judaism as a religion alone, and thus they view Jews who convert to another faith as non-Jews. In contrast, traditional rabbinic Judaism views Judaism as a peoplehood, and not merely a religion. In this view, those who leave Judaism by converting to another religion are still seen as Jewish people; however, they are seen as apostates who by their actions have chosen to remove themselves from the Judaic religion. According to Jewish law, Jewishness is determined by the mother; thus the immediate male descendants of a female Jewish apostate are still considered Jewish; all her female descendants, but only in an unbroken female line of descent, and their immediate male children are also considered Jewish. While most of these descendants probably would not be practicing Judaism, or in many cases aware of their Jewishness, their status as Jews technically still would be in effect. As such, all Jewish denominations welcome the return of any of these people back to the Jewish community; such people would be considered Jews in good standing without the need for a formal conversion. Generally, people who have been raised as non-Jews would be expected to make some sort of public sign that they are returning to Judaism, for instance engaging in a course in Jewish education, joining a synagogue, having an adult Bar Mitzvah ceremony, etc. If not circumcised, males are required to have a circumcision.

Note that “circumcision” in the Jewish sense is not the medical procedure performed by a doctor but is a religious procedure performed by a mohel.

Being Jewish is not inherited from one’s Jewish father but from the mother, even if he were not an apostate from Judaism. This traditional rabbinic view is still held by many in the return-to-tradition wing of Reform, and by all of Orthodox and Conservative Judaism. Conversion to Judaism

The laws of conversion to Judaism are based in discussions in the Talmud; throughout history different Jewish communities have always agreed on the basic requirements, although minor details have varied from community to community. Specifics can be found in the responsa literature, and in the various codes of Jewish law. Whenever someone converts to Judaism their sponsoring rabbi has the role of a mara d’atra, local halakhic authority, who has within bounds, the final say in deciding how to apply and interpret Jewish law. A good summary of the process of conversion to Judaism can be found in the Shulchan Aruch, a classic 16th century code of Jewish law. Most authorities interpret Jewish law as forbidding proselytizing, or at least discouraging it. Any non-Jew who wishes to become a Jew is gently discouraged from doing so. Traditionally, a Rabbi turns away a prospective convert three times. However, if the Rabbi approached is convinced of the prospective convert’s sincerity, then he will allow him or her to follow the process of conversion. This process requires that the convert be taught the basic laws and beliefs of Judaism. The convert must show an ability to keep the laws and make a commitment to keep them. The conversion takes place in the presence of a three-person court; the three may be rabbis, but in pressing circumstances some or all may be Jewish laypeople generally recognized in the local Jewish community as religiously observant and trustworthy. The court must give the convert a summary of the laws and the convert must undertake in the presence of the court to keep the laws. If the convert is a man he must undergo circumcision. If he is already circumcised, he undergoes a symbolic circumcision in which a tiny drop of blood is drawn. The convert then immerses himself or herself in a mikvah (ritual bath) in the presence of the court. If the convert is a woman, she immerses herself, in a standing position, in the presence of women, leaving her head above the water. The court then witnesses the immersion of the head from another room. (This fulfills two goals: (1) the immersion of the head—and therefore the whole body—is witnessd by the court and (2) the privacy and modesty of the woman is protected.) Upon immersion, the convert becomes a full-fledged Jew. He or she is from that moment onward required to keep the laws of Judaism; according to classical Jewish theology, a convert will get an additional heavenly reward for doing so, yet can incur heavenly punishment if he or she fails to keep them.

Conversion in Reform Judaism

These rules of conversion to Judaism are still followed by Orthodox and Conservative Judaism, and by some of Reform Judaism outside of the USA. However, Reform Judaism within the USA no longer follows these rules. The Central Conference of American Rabbis (the official body of American Reform rabbis) formally resolved to permit the admission of converts “without any initiatory rite, ceremony, or observance whatever.” (CCAR Yearbook 3 (1893), 73-95; American Reform Responsa, no. 68, at 236-237.) Although this resolution has been examined critically by some Reform rabbis, the resolution still remains the official policy of American Reform Judaism (CCAR Responsa Circumcision for an Eight-Year-Old Convert 5756.13, and Solomon B. Freehof, Reform Responsa for Our Time, no. 15.) Thus, American Reform Judaism does not require ritual immersion in a mikveh, circumcision, acceptance of any part of Jewish law as normative, the appearance before a rabbinical court, or a minimal course of Jewish study. As such, their conversions are generally rejected by non-Reform Jews.

Recognition of converts between denominations

Converts who have undergone non-Orthodox conversions will find that many Jews will not marry them or their children. Orthodox Jews generally accept the validity of most Orthodox conversions to Judaism, but reject the validity of most Conservative conversions, and reject the validity of all Reform and Reconstructionist conversions. Even among Orthodox Jews, disputes sometimes arise. Conservative Jews accept the validity of all Orthodox and Conservative conversions to Judaism; they are willing to accept the validity of individual Reform and Reconstructionist conversions if those cases are carried out in accord with Jewish law; however these are examined on a case by case basis. Since they do not consider themselves bound by Jewish law, Reform and Reconstructionist Jews accept the validity of conversions to Judaism from all Jewish denominations. It is sometimes not made clear to converts that their conversions would not be accepted by all Jewish groups. This can lead to circumstances when a Rabbi will not agree to let somebody who thought he was Jewish marry until he undergoes a new conversion. In the case of a woman who underwent a less stringent conversion, those who require a more stringent conversion would consider her and all her children non-Jewish until they undergo the more stringent conversion. In addition the more stringent accuse the less stringent of causing intermarriage and the deterioration of the Jewish people as they are watering down what it means to be a Jew and making it easier for people to leave Judaism by allowing them to easily join non-Jewish families. The less stringent note that Jewish descent in the Bible appears to have been patrileneal, that modern DNA testing can remove doubts about paternity, that Judaism is no longer an ancient tribal religion and should model its conversion procedures on modern faith communities, that the more stringent discourage sincere conversions to a religion and people decimated by generations of oppression, and that stringent conversion procedures discourage non-Jewish romantic partners of Jews from joining the Jewish people.

Law of Return

The State of Israel allows any Jew to acquire citizenship; this is known as the Law of Return. For the purposes of the Law of Return, anyone with a Jewish grandparent or who converted to Judaism is considered Jewish, and Israeli law also allows the immediate non-Jewish family of immigrants to immigrate under the law. This definition is not the same as that in traditional Jewish law; it is a deliberately wider, so as to include those non-Jewish relatives of Jews who were perceived to be Jewish, and thus faced anti-Semitism. More on this topic can be found in the article on Population groups in Israel.

Ancient Israelites

For the first two periods the history of the Jews is mainly that of Palestine or Judea. It begins among those peoples which occupied the area lying between the Nile river on the one side and the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers on the other. Surrounded by ancient seats of culture in Egypt and Babylonia, by the mysterious deserts of Arabia, and by the highlands of Asia Minor, the land of Canaan (later Judea, then Palestine, then Israel) was a meeting place of civilizations. The land was traversed by old-established trade routes and possessed important harbors on the Gulf of Akaba and on the Mediterranean coast, the latter exposing it to the influence of the Levantine culture. Jews descend mostly from the ancient Israelites (also known as Hebrews), who settled in the land of Israel. The Israelites traced their common lineage to the biblical patriarch Abraham through Isaac and Jacob. A kingdom was established under Saul and continued under King David and Solomon. King David conquered Jerusalem (first a Canaanite, then a Jebusite town) and made it his capital. After Solomon’s reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the Israel (in the north) and the Judah (in the south). Israel was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser V in the 8th century BC. The kingdom of Judah was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BC. The Judahite elite was exiled to Babylonia, but later at least a part of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians. After the Persians were defeated by Alexander the Great, the Seleucid Kingdom was formed which sought to incorporate Greek culture into the Persian world. When the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, supported by hellenized Jews, attempted to rededicate the Jewish temple to Zeus, the orthodox Jews revolted under the leadership of the Maccabees and created an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty which lasted from 165 BCE to 63 BCE. This was followed by a period of Roman rule. In 66 CE, Judeans began to revolt against the Roman rulers of Judea. The revolt was smashed by the Roman emperors Vespasian and Titus Flavius. The Romans destroyed all but a single wall of the Temple in Jerusalem and stole the holy menorah. Judeans continued to live in their land in significant numbers, and were allowed to practice their religion, until the 2nd century when Julius Severus ravaged Judea while putting down the bar Kokhba revolt. After 135, Jews were not allowed to enter the city of Jerusalem, although this ban must have been at least partially lifted, since at the destruction of the rebuilt city by the Persians in the 7th century, Jews are said to have lived there. Many of the Israeli Jews were sold into slavery while others became citizens of other parts of the Roman Empire. This is the traditional explanation to the diaspora. However, a majority of the Jews in Antiquity were most likely descendants of convertites in the cities of the Hellenistic-Roman world, especially in Alexandria and Asia Minor, and were only affected by the diaspora in its spiritual sense, as the sense of loss and homelessness which became a cornerstone of the Jewish creed, much supported by persecutions in various parts of the world. The policy of conversion, which spread the Jewish religion throughout the Hellenistic civilization, seems to have ended with the wars against the Romans and the following reconstruction of Jewish values for the post-Temple era. Before the rise of Islam the Jews inhabited the entire Roman empire; with the Arab expansion, some of them would move as far as India and China. Some Jewish people are also descended from converts to Judaism outside the Mediterranean world. While the Avars Hebrew origins/conversion debate continues, it is known that some Khazars, Edomites, and Ethiopians, as well as many Arabs, particularly in Yemen before, converted to Judaism in the past; today in the United States and Israel some people still convert to Judaism. In fact, there is a greater tradition of conversion to Judaism than many people realize. The word “proselyte” originally meant a Greek who had converted to Judaism. As late as the 6th century the rump Roman empire (i.e. Byzantium) was issuing decrees against conversion to Judaism, implying that conversion to Judaism was still occurring.

Ethnic Divisions

The commonly-used terms Ashkenazi and Sephardic refer both to a religious and an ethnic division. Some scholars hold that Ashkenazi Jews are descendants of those who originally followed the Palestinian Jewish religious tradition, and Sephardic Jews are descendants of those who originally followed the Babylonian religious tradition. Jews have historically been divided into four major ethnic groups: Ashkenazi (Jews who lived in Germany or France before migrating to Eastern Europe) Sephardic (Jews who lived in Spain or Portugal) Oriental Jews (Jews who lived in the Middle East and North Africa, but later spread to Central Asia and South Asia). Note that in common usage, most Oriental Jews are called Sephardic, as the religious rites of Oriental Jews and Sephardic Jews is essentially the same. The Yemenite Jews (also known as Teimanim). These are Oriental Jews whose geographical and social isolation from the rest of the Jewish community allowed them to develop a liturgy and set of practices sufficiently distinct from other Oriental Jewish groups so as to be recognized as a different group. Smaller groups of Jews include the following: The Ethiopian Jews, also known as the Falasha or Beta Israel. the Bene Israel, i.e. Jews who lived in Bombay, India.

The Cochin Jews, also living in India

The Romaniotes, i.e. Greek speaking Jews living in the Balkans from the Hellenistic era until today (almost 6,000 people worldwide) Yiddish is the traditional language of the Ashkenazi, whereas Ladino (Judeo-Portuguese) is that of the Sephardim. Most Oriental Jews spoke Arabic, but others spoke Aramaic or Persian. Following the Spanish Inquisition the Sephardic Jews were dispersed, some migrating to Europe, where they were assimilated into the Ashkenazi, others migrating to the Middle East where they were assimilated into the Oriental Jews. Most Oriental Jews practice Sephardic rite and are therefore sometimes referred to as Sephardic. Ashkenazi Jews practice Ashkenazi rite. Out of these communities, the largest by far are the Ashkenazim, comprising ~80% of the Jewish total, with Oriental Jews comprising most of the remainder. Sub-groups of Jews include the Gruzim (Georgian Jews from the Caucasus), Juhurim (Mountain Jews mainly from Daghestan in the eastern Caucasus), Maghrebim (North African Jews), Abayudaya and (Ugandan Jews)

Ancient sects of Judaism

Almost all Jews today are Rabbinical Jews, who follow Judaism through the lens of the oral law, contained in the Mishnah and Talmud. A miniscule group known as the Karaites still exists. They accept the whole of the Tanakh, or Hebrew Bible, but reject the teachings in the later Mishnah and Talmud. As a result, the Karaites do not accept the Talmud’s prohibition against eating milk and meat together. One small community of Samaritans is still extant; however, their religion is not the same as rabbinic Judaism. The Samaritan faith and that of other Jews diverged over a millennium ago; Samaritans do not consider themselves, nor call themselves, Jews. The Samaritan religion is based on some of the same books used as the basis of rabbinic Judaism, but these religions are not identical. Samaritan scriptures include the Samaritan version of the Torah, the Memar Markah, the Samaritan liturgy, and Samaritan law codes and biblical commentaries. They do not recognize the legitimacy of the oral law, nor most of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh).

Religious leadership

Traditionally only the greatest scholars of the Torah and Talmud rise to become the leaders of the Jewish people. This requires deep study of the Talmud and the Shulkhan Arukh Code of Jewish Law as well as many other classical texts of Jewish scholarship. Normally, one must study many years in a Yeshiva to become a rabbi. Synagogues are led by rabbis (spiritual leaders). In many synagogues there is a hazzan (cantor) that leads many parts of the prayer service. Many Sephardic rabbinic Jewish communities refer to their leaders as hakham. Among Yemenite Jews, known as Teimanin, the term mori (teacher) is used. The spiritual leader of a Karaite community is often called a hakham.


Prior to World War II the world population of Jews was around 18 million. The Holocaust reduced this number to around 12 million. Today, there are an estimated 14 million Jews worldwide in over 134 countries. Of these, around 5.8 million live in the United States and 5 million live in Israel. Most of the remainder live in Canada, Hungary, Ukraine, France, Argentina, Russia and Germany, including 2.4 million in Europe. At the moment, an increasing number of Russian Jews are emigrating to Germany. More than 500,000 Jews live in Latin America. Nearly half of them live in Argentina, while large communities also exist in Brazil (about 120,000) and Mexico (about 50,000).

Israel is the only country in which Jews form a majority of the population. It was established as an independent state on May 14, 1948. The symbol on the Israeli flag is known as the Star of David (“Magen David” in Hebrew).

Despite the small number of Jews worldwide, many influential thinkers in modern times have been ethnically Jewish. These include Karl Marx (whose parents converted to Christianity before he was born, and gave him no Jewish education), Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein, Ludwig von Mises, Ayn Rand, Noam Chomsky and Milton Friedman. See List of famous Jews.

The Jewish community today Europe’s largest Jewish community can be found in Budapest, Hungary, home to 100-150,000 Jews.

The fastest-growing Jewish community in the world is in Germany, especially in its capital Berlin. Some tens of thousands of Jews from the former Eastern Bloc have settled in Germany since the fall of the Berlin wall. The experiences during the Nazi era, a cosmopolitan and anti-nationalistic post-war education, and the political movement of the Sixties have created an atmosphere of tolerance in Germany which is still missing in many post-communist states.

Yom Yerushalayim
(Jerusalem Day)

On June 7,1967 / Iyar 28, 5727, Israeli troops crashed through the defenses set up by Arab troops and recaptured those parts of the holy city of Jerusalem which had previously been in Arab possession.

Yom Yerushalayim commemorates this significant day.

Israel Map

  also see: Twelve Tribes of Israel